Conversos, Anusim, and Sephardic Identity

Mr. David Ramirez is an independent researcher who has written extensively on the topic of Conversos. Several of his papers on the subject of Conversos are found on

The first paper I read by Mr. Ramirez was titled Treatment of Iberian Anusim. The paper provides a brief review of key rabbinic responses and attitudes towards Conversos and their descendants from the 14th to the 20th centuries. The link for this paper is below:

The second paper I read by Mr. Ramirez is titled Conversos and Maskilim: Similar Issue; Different Approaches. It is an interesting and innovative review of the halakhic status of Conversos as compared to Maskilim, the individuals of the  Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment movement) between the 1770s and 1880s. The Maskilim sought to reeducate Jews so that they could participate in modern society. A consequence of the Haskalah was the abandonment of traditional Jewish observance.The link for this paper is below:

Another  article of interest is titled Of Conversos and the Loss of Sephardic Identity.

Posted by Rabbi Juan Bejarano-Gutierrez the director of the B’nei Anusim Center for Education and the author of Secret Jews: The Complex Identity of Crypto-Jews and Crypto-Judaism.

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